By L. Wågberg, L. Winter (auth.), Che On Au, Ian Thorn (eds.)
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The curiosity in what have been identified at the beginning as Friedel-Crafts polymerisations begun within the Nineteen Thirties and grew swiftly from the Forties below the impact of the united states artificial Rubber Programme and from the Nineteen Fifties due to the Ziegler-Natta and similar polymer advancements. From 1944 Professor Plesch has spent such a lot of his educational existence, learning the character of what have been later referred to as cationic and, extra lately nonetheless, cationoid polymerisations.
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0) and increasing water hardness will increase the formation of calcium soap offatty acids; and the formation of calcium soaps offatty acid will increase the viscosity of the organic material. A deposit may also be formed when two components, each of them not forming a deposit, are combined within the papermaking system. """~~ - - \:,1 ... _ - --- '--- '~- - -~l -- -t" ~ -:----: ~·-~~~ Fig. 6 Adsorption of water-soluble organic components onto colloidal surface. material can then obtain the tackiness required for deposition (a tackiness none of the components alone have).
Once a layer of organic material is adsorbed, microorganisms from the water phase may attach to the surface and studies have shown that bacteria are the first organisms to colonise a surface, but not all microorganisms will have a tendency to seek surfaces and grow on these to form a slime deposit. 1. Stage 3: growth and metabolism. Once the microorganism has attached itself to the surface it will start to grow and the rate of this growth will depend on the conditions for growth present. e. polysaccharides produced outside the cell wall and a thick resistant matrix, which is the frame ofthe biofilm, is formed in this process.
34 APPLICATIONS OF WET-END PAPER CHEMISTRY Minimizing the content oforganic material. The content of organic material is a rather obvious parameter. If there is no depositable organic material there will be no deposit, and if the content of the material is high then deposition can be expected to be significant. The content of colloidal organic material is of course the result of many different factors, the most important ones being the fibre source, the treatment of the fibres and the extent of accumulation as a result of water recycling.
Applications of Wet-End Paper Chemistry by L. Wågberg, L. Winter (auth.), Che On Au, Ian Thorn (eds.)