Read e-book online Analytical Methods in Oceanography PDF

By Gould R.F. (ed.)

ISBN-10: 0841202451

ISBN-13: 9780841202450

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Downstream catalyst beds can be operated continuously for several years with dust at this level. The next five sections discuss these cooling and dust removal steps. 30ffgas Cooling and Heat Recovery The first step in treating metallurgical offgas is cooling in preparation for electrostatic dust precipitation. Electrostatic precipitators operate at about 600 K. Above this temperature, their steel structure weakens. Below this temperature, sulfuric acid forms from small amounts of SO3 and H20(g) in the furnace offgas - causing corrosion of the precipitator.

The new acid is then returned for further catalyst service - or sold. 7 Summary Sulfuric acid is used as catalyst in petroleum refining and other industrial organic processes. The sulfuric acid catalyst is not consumed, but it becomes ineffective as it absorbs water, hydrocarbons and other chemicals over time. Its catalytic properties are maintained by bleeding off some of the contaminated 'spent' acid and replacing the bleed with new strong acid. The spent acid bleed is recycled and made into new acid by: (a) decomposing its H2SO 4 into 502, 02 and HEO(g) in a hot (1300 K), mildly oxidizing furnace (b) removing dust and condensing water from the furnace's offgas (c) adding 0 2 (in air) (d) dehydrating the gas with strong sulfuric acid (e) catalytically oxidizing the gas's SO2 to SO3 (f) making new, strong sulfuric acid from (e)'s S03.

1). 60 sulfur burning furnace \ . :: iiiii: ;' ' J boiler and I dry 700 K, SO2, 02, N2 gas to catalytic ~ S02+1~02 superheater ried air ~ SO3 oxidationand H2SO4making --350 K strong sulfuric acid ---~-_E~-j,-jxl iv v v T Y i filtered f packedbed'I AIR DEHYDRATION moist air ~ , . _I'~'~" ~'~'1 --3 volume% ="-_-" / H o gl slightly H20-diluted sulfuric acid Fig. 1. Dehydration of sulfur combustion air in a sulfur buming acid plant. The dried air contains---50 milligrams of H20(g) per Nm 3 of gas. J'*'*'*'*'l DEHYDRATION ~6 volume% H20(g) " ~ - .

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Analytical Methods in Oceanography by Gould R.F. (ed.)


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