By Owen Chadwick
Might a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick provides an research of the reasons and effects of the tip of the historical Papal country, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here below assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never merely from Italy, yet from liberal pursuits in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish matters. If a united Italy was once to be completed, the kingdom must disappear. those pressures triggered Popes to withstand "the international" instead of to aim to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly facets of Catholic religion. whilst they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. therefore, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority can be way more centralized in Rome.
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Extra info for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
Gregory XVI 23 was 'appalled' (said the secret Austrian informant) and at last accepted that nothing was to be gained from this pope and that the best he could hope for was silence. He half-exempted the Pope on the supposition that this anti-Polish brief was a payment forced out of him as a fee for the military protection of the Papal States. It was odd that no one in Rome had even discussed his ideas with him. It was odd that if they meant to criticize him they had given him no chance to explain himself.
Many teachers were devout Catholics; and one in twenty teachers was a priest. Still, the strife over how, or whether, to educate the children in religion led to a rift within French society. Two possible ways lay ahead for a French Catholic educationalist wanting children educated in the faith. One way was to claim an exclusive right to control education, on the grounds that religion is the foundation of character in homes arid families and the moral basis of society, that France is a Catholic country and therefore it is right that the Church control education and that religion be taught in all schools.
Montalembert wrote from Munich to a friend: they had meant to go back to Paris to restart L'Avenir with new energy. But, he said, the encyclical has come and puts the Church in direct enmity with science and liberty and calls us and our system 'impudent, execrable and even stinking', and says liberty of conscience is madness and it is only the sequel of the brief 'dictated by the Russian prince Gagarin' against the Poles and it destroys the Catholic party in France. So we must give up trying to defend the Church in the way we thought, and we will hold ourselves in silence.
A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church) by Owen Chadwick