By Albert Stwertka
Provides the fundamental techniques of chemistry and explains complicated theories ahead of providing a separate article on all the construction blocks that make up the universe.
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Additional info for A Guide to the Elements
To further chemical treatment. Chemical Symbol F is in its many It its extreme that fluorine reactivity, pure took 75 wars of continuous chemists before it was finally isolated by 51 Fluorine Fluorine usually prepared by passing an electric current is through molten fluoride working at the Air Force laboratory mam California, astounded pure fluorine from means. Because a 1986, however, Karl O. Christie, salts. In procedure, amounts in using only chemical energy required tor such ot had long been believed it awards Air Force Base 1 compound a fluorine the large <>t at chemists b) successfully isolating that such a chemical sepa- was impossible.
Be kept immersed used nitrogen is example, can nitrogen tor long periods before being in liquid insemination. Because in artificial a bull, for nonreactive, liquid is it also the refrigerant of choice in experiments requiring very cold conditions, such as the testing of superconducting electrical materials. Nitrogen which it in its gaseous form is important to keep other, is gases away. It often used in situations in more reactive atmospheric serves industry as a blanketing gas, for example, in protecting materials such as electronic components during pro- duction or storage, lb prevent the oxidation of wine, wine bottles are often tilled with nitrogen after the cork is removed.
It large is the slightest shock, releasing large quanti- at volumes ot nitrogen and carbon the rapid expansion ot these gases that causes the shock wave associated with the explosion. \ useful derivative of nitroglycerine, called dynamite, was discovered showed forms in when that nitroglycerine a relatively safe, later established from 1867 by Alfred Nobel (1833-96). is mixed with day, it shock-resistant explosive. Nobel the Nobel Prize with the fortune he made this discovery. When nitric acid is neutralized with bases such as sodium and potassium hydroxide, called nitrates.
A Guide to the Elements by Albert Stwertka