By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This publication provides rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal tools for 1D oxide nanostructure instruction. those equipment characterize an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, reasonably cheap and, hence, acceptable for acquiring a variety of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and houses. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately that allows you to illustrate the main of the sol-gel and hydrothermal guidance of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this system also are in brief awarded.
Throughout the booklet, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical homes of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures convey attention-grabbing optical and electric homes, because of their restricted morphology. furthermore, a well-defined geometry will be linked to chemically lively species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes offered a mild photocatalytic job, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. in terms of titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor zone and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, greater gentle absorption, and quickly electron-transport strength have attracted major study curiosity. The chemical and actual differences (microwave assisted hydrothermal tools) mentioned right here enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge components of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on a number of substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate ahead of the hydrothermal practise. utilizing applicable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit should be obtained.
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Extra resources for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
The amount of the secondary phase increases with increasing the duration time of the hydrothermal synthesis. The wurtzite phase decreases accordingly. The mechanism of nanorod formation and further their transformation in nanotubes in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine could be given by the reactions presented below . The decomposition of the hexamethylenetetramine in water, at 60 C, led to formation of ammonia and formaldehyde, as can be seen in following reactions: ðCH2 Þ6 N4 þ 6H2 O !
In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction determined that the transformation takes place step-wise and started at 375 C (Fig. 8). 2. 2, one may notice that the different types of precursors and the post-washing conditions, in similar hydrothermal conditions, lead to formation of TiNTs with very similar morphology, but with very different reported structures. Establishing the proper structure of the synthesized TiNTs remains an open challenge. 1 Titanate Nanotubes Obtained by Hydrothermal Synthesis 33 Fig.
The influence of the alkaline sources used for hydrothermal synthesis on the morphology of the obtained ZnO particles was studied by Lu et al. . 5–13 Hydrothermal synthesis 200 C for 6 h 450 C for 3 h Sonochemical at 70–50 C 95 C for 10 h/ 20 h 200 C for 5 h 90 C, 30 min ZnO morphology Nanorods (pH ¼ 7), Flakes (pH ¼ 1) and flowers (pH ¼ 12) Rods References  Nanorod-based sphere-like superstructures  (a–c) Spherical nanoparticles   120 C, 17 h (d) Nanorods flower-like shape 60 C nanoparticles; 180–220 C nanorods; 260 C flower 3D flower-like 120 C for 24 h 450 C for 2 h 180 C for 3 h Dumbbell shaped Flower-like Nanorods  Supercritical conditions T ¼ 411 C P ¼ 305 bar Rods  60–260 C/16 h    When NH4OH was used as alkaline source, ZnO crystallized in a rod-like morphology highly orientated on a-axis.
1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods by Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu